Sonic the Hedgehog[a] is a video game series and media franchise created and owned by Sega. The franchise follows Sonic, an anthropomorphic blue hedgehog who battles the evil Doctor Eggman, a mad scientist. The main Sonic the Hedgehog games are platformers mostly developed by Sonic Team; other games, developed by various studios, include spin-offs in the racing, fighting, party, and sports genres. The franchise also incorporates printed media, animations, a 2020 feature film, and merchandise.
The first Sonic game, released in 1991 for the Sega Genesis, was developed after Sega requested a mascot character to compete with Nintendo‘s mascot Mario. Its success helped Sega become one of the leading video game companies during the 16-bit era of the early 1990s. Sega Technical Institute developed the next three Sonic games in addition to Sonic Spinball (1993). After a hiatus during the unsuccessful Saturn era, the first major 3D Sonic game, Sonic Adventure, was released in 1998 for the Dreamcast. Sega exited the console market and shifted to third-party development in 2001, continuing the series on Nintendo, Xbox, and PlayStation systems.
While Sonic games often have unique game mechanics and stories, they feature recurring elements such as the ring-based health system, locations, and speedy gameplay. Games typically feature Sonic setting out to stop Eggman’s schemes for world domination, and the player navigates levels that include springs, slopes, bottomless pits, and vertical loops. While Sonic and Eggman were the only characters introduced in the first game, the series would go on to have a large cast of characters; some, such as Miles “Tails” Prower, Knuckles the Echidna, and Shadow the Hedgehog, has starred in spin-offs. The franchise has been represented in crossovers such as Sega All-Stars and Nintendo’s Super Smash Bros. series.
The franchise branched out into other media in the early 1990s. DIC Entertainment produced three Sonic-based animated series between 1993 and 1999, while Studio Pierrot released a two-part original video animation, localized in North America as Sonic the Hedgehog: The Movie, in 1996. Other Sonic animations include TMS Entertainment‘s Sonic X (2003–2006) and Genao Productions‘ Sonic Boom (2014–2017). Archie Comics, Fleetway Publications, and IDW Publishing have published Sonic comic books, with the Archie series being the longest-running comic based on a video game. The 2020 Sonic film, distributed by Paramount Pictures, grossed over $300 million worldwide and is the highest-grossing film based on a video game in US box office history; a sequel is set for release in 2022.
Sonic the Hedgehog is Sega’s flagship franchise and one of the bestselling video game franchises, grossing over $5 billion by 2014 and selling 140 million by 2016. Series sales and free-to-play mobile game downloads totaled 920 million by 2019. The Genesis Sonic games have been described as representative of the culture of the 1990s and listed among the greatest of all time. Although later games have been criticized for a perceived decline in quality compared to earlier installments, Sonic is influential in the video game industry and is frequently referenced in popular culture. The franchise is known for its passionate fandom that produces unofficial media, such as fan art and fangames.
Based on the global blockbuster videogame franchise from Sega, Sonic the Hedgehog tells the story of the world’s speediest hedgehog as he embraces his new home on Earth. In this live-action adventure comedy, Sonic and his new best friend team up to defend the planet from the evil genius Dr. Robotnik and his plans for world domination.